Dorsal approaches to the antebrachiocarpal and middle carpal joints allowed visualization of most intra-articular dorsal structures in adult cattle.
Monitoring and reporting the prevalence of lameness and hock injuries to farmers can motivate changes in facilities and management targeted to address these ailments.
In cows, the presence of hock lesions is strongly related to time spent lying on abrasive surfaces, prolonged high local pressure or friction of the hock on hard surfaces, and collisions of the hock with cubicle fittings.